SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE (IPV) DURING PREGNANCY AMONG WOMEN IN PAKISTAN
Keywords:Intimate partner violence, pregnancy, women in Pakistan.
Background: The objective of the current study was to determine the specific sociodemographic factors of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during pregnancy in Pakistan.
Methods: The data used was limited to the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012- 2013, to ever married women aged 15-49 years (n=3449) to analyze the differences in their socio-demographic characteristics and experiences of IPV during pregnancy. The relation between IPV during pregnancy and socio-demographic determinants was measured by calculating adjusted odds ratios (OR)with the use of multiple logistic regression modelsafter adjusting for women’s age, education, wealth quintile, residence, and employment status.
Results: Comprehensively, the study estimates that around 10% of all ever-married females aged between 15-49 years in Pakistan had experienced IPV during pregnancy in a life time. The women who were in poverty, uneducated and unemployed experienced higher IPV.IPV during pregnancy was significantly associated with residence in rural areas (AOR 3.065; 95% CI 2.064- 8.006), provincial belonging to KPK (AOR 2.458; 95% CI 1.780-3.39)) and Baluchistan (AOR 2.234; 95% CI 1.554-3.212) and having husbands who were unemployed (AOR 2.324; 95% CI 1.212 -4.456) and consumed alcohol (AOR 4.311; 95% CI 3.102-5.991).
Conclusion: The study concludes that more investment is imperative at a policy level to avert growing incidence of gender-based violence in Pakistan. The policy should focus on job opportunities, education, rural development and access to better public health care.