TRANSPORT DEMAND MANAGEMENT (TDM) FOR BUS INDUSTRY AT CROSS BORDER MALAYSIA AND THAILAND
This research investigates on passengers’ movement and services of bus operators at crossing border between Malaysia and Thailand. It also discusses with regards of bus operational activities, passengers’ behaviors and fleets’ deployments. The low volume of passengers led to reduction the numbers of bus movements and causes to unproductive at cross border operations. The bus industry experienced with high capital investments, overheads, low-profit-margin and sometimes running at loss in their daily operations. Through these problems, this study suggests with an appropriate mechanism of using the Transport Demand Management (TDM) models in facing the current and future situation. This is an exploratory and qualitative study where the interviews were conducted among 40 respondents including the bus owners, passengers, government, regulatory bodies, public and stakeholders at both countries. The result indicates on the effectiveness of TDM with Seven(7) pillars as suggested are referring to proper scheduling, effective communication, drivers’ attitude, customers’ cares, information technology, skill training and having frequent meetings. The new suggested model in TDM is recommended to be used in future planning in bus industry for cross border activities.