SOCIOECONOMIC, DEMOGRAPHIC, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATED WITH STUNTING AMONG CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS OLD IN ETHIOPIA: ETHIOPIAN DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY, 2016
Background: Stunting is one of the most serious but least addressed health problems in the world. Adequate nutrition is essential for children’s health and development. Globally it is estimated that, directly or indirectly, for at least 35% of deaths in children less than five years of age. Under nutrition is also a major cause of disability preventing children who survive from reaching their full development potential.
Methods: Statistical models that can treat the categorical response variable like binary logistic regression model will be employed. Beside this study will include Socio –economic and demographic factors; Sex and age of child, age of mother, Educational status, occupation, health status, religion, sex of household head, number of children under five years, Household income, family size, land ownership and time of cultivation, income source of household, wealth index as independent variables. Empty model, random intercept and fixed slope with random coefficient are the method of analyzing the dataset.
Result: The prevalence of stunting among children ages under five years old were about 49.3%. Months of breastfeeding, educational level, and wealth index, currently pregnant and child food nutrient are significantly associated with stunting presence. The odds of stunting status of child from women who are pregnant is more likely to be stunted 4.157 compared to non-pregnant women controlling for other variables in the model and random effects at level two. Women who feed nutrient food to their child are 1.239 more likely to be stunted (OR=1.239) than women who didn’t feed nutrient food controlling for other variables in the model and random effects at level two.
Conclusions: Age of child, breast feeding, sex, pregnant status, and food nutrient were found to be significantly associated with stunting in multilevel modeling of random coefficient model. Finally random coefficient model best fit the EDHS 2016 dataset. Therefore, interventions that focus on breast feeding, period of next pregnancy, food nutrient taken by children are required for improving child stunting in Ethiopia.