OBJECTIVES OF ISLAMIC SHARĪ‘ĀH AND THEIR ROLE IN PROTECTING SOCIETY FROM EXCESSIVE TAKFĪR AND ATHEISM
In this paper, the researcher attempts to define the terms 'excessive takfīr' and 'atheism' and to find out the causes of these phenomena, the consequences of their spread and the measures to prevent and treat them. The paper explores the efforts of classical and modern scholars in this regard to make use of and build on them. The researcher seeks to achieve several goals, most important of which are: Defining the terms 'excessive takfīr' and 'atheism', going beyond the mere prohibition and condemnation of these phenomena to investigation of their causes and reaching practical solutions to prevent and treat both phenomena. The researcher uses the descriptive inductive method to describe the problem under study. Next, the scientific method has been applied in terms of collecting and critiquing the study materials and in reaching conclusions inferred from their premises. The problem of this research revolves around examining the issues of excessive takfīr and atheism, highlighting their causes and attempting to find practical solutions that can prevent and treat them. This paper clarifies the role of al-Maqāṣid al-Kulliyah (universal objectives) in protecting the society from the two maladies. It is divided as follows: Introduction part includes the reasons for selecting the topic, the research problem, questions, goals and methods. Section one: It discusses the definition of Maqāṣid and their activation; the excessive takfīr's dangers, causes and consequences and the dangers and causes of the spread of atheism. Section two: The role of the universal Maqāṣid in the protection from takfīr's dangers. Section three: The role of the universal Maqāṣid in protecting the society from the danger of atheism. Conclusion: It includes the findings and recommendations.