PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES ANALYSIS OF STUDENT CLASSROOM ENGAGEMENT SCALE IN THE ACADEMIA OF PAKISTAN
The aim of this study was to design a classroom engagement scale for undergraduate students at the higher education level. Classroom engagement was divided into three dimensions: cognitive engagement, relational engagement, and social media engagement. The target population of this research has consisted of undergraduate students, including social sciences, business sciences, and pure sciences—the participants of this research comprised 305 students as a sample. The questionnaire was distributed among undergraduate students; only 305 useable questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 20.33%. The item pool was developed for the scale after examined an extensive literature review. Three factors were identified such as cognitive engagement, relational engagement, and social media engagement for classroom engagement. The SnmartPLS 3.2.2 statistical software was used to analyze the relationships drawn in the conceptual model. The 23 items were identified on a 7-point Likert-Type scale (1, strongly disagree, to 7, strongly agree). Based on the factor analysis results, all three subscales proved reliable and valid and significantly positively correlated with classroom engagement. Therefore, it was concluded that the classroom engagement scale was also reliable and valid.